Immigration law in the United States can be complicated and confusing for anyone, especially someone who might not speak English as their first language. In today's environment of possible immigration reform, unscrupulous individuals are holding themselves out as immigration-service providers, offering assistance with visa petitions and green card applications. People who pay them for their services, however, rarely if ever see any benefit. Government agencies, from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to city officials, are pursuing and prosecuting alleged immigration-services scammers, and seeking to educate the public about their rights.
In order to provide immigration services to the public, a person must be a licensed attorney or have accreditation from the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA). U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) offers an overview of common scams targeting immigrants. Some scammers pose as USCIS officials on the telephone in order to obtain personal information for identity theft, or to demand payment to fix non-existent immigration problems. Similar scams may use email or social media instead of the telephone. Local businesses and websites may purport to offer assistance with immigration petitions and applications, despite having no legal authority to do so.
A common scam that targets immigrants from Latin American countries involves the use of the title Notario Público. In the Spanish-speaking world, a notary public performs many of the same functions as an attorney, possibly including immigration assistance. A notary public in the U.S., however, is not authorized to provide legal services (unless they are also an attorney). The FTC obtained a judgment against a Baltimore company that targeted Spanish-speaking individuals from El Salvador and Honduras and charged them a fee for immigration services that were rarely fulfilled. FTC v. Loma Int'l Business Group, No. 1:11-cv-01483, mem. order (D. Md., Mar. 24, 2014).