Articles Posted in Naturalization

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By LaNicoya- (http://www.flickr.com/photos/lanicoya_/1721626888/) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia CommonsU.S. immigration law does not provide a specific definition of “citizen.” The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution identifies as a citizen anyone born in the U.S., except for children of foreign diplomats, and anyone naturalized after their birth. Since this is still not a distinct definition, U.S. citizenship is perhaps better described as a set of rights and duties, including the duty of loyalty to this country. Some people who become naturalized U.S. citizens retain citizenship in their country of origin. The U.S. Department of State (DOS) does not encourage dual citizenship, but the Supreme Court has held that it is permissible despite language in federal immigration statutes suggesting otherwise. Immigrants who wish to become naturalized U.S. citizens should consider the effect it might have on their relationship to their country of origin, and their future relationship to this country.

The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) defines a “national” as “a person owing permanent allegiance to a state.” 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(21). It defines a “national of the United States” as someone who meets the previous definition with regard to the U.S., or who is a U.S. citizen. Id. at § 1101(a)(22). Congress has modified the laws regarding citizenship in, or allegiance to, more than one country on numerous occasions. Currently, the INA states that a person seeking to become a naturalized U.S. citizen must take an “oath of renunciation and allegiance,” which includes a statement that they “renounce and abjure absolutely and entirely all allegiance and fidelity” to any other country. Id. at § 1448(a)(3).

While a renunciation of allegiance to any other country is a requirement for naturalization, the INA does not provide a clear means of enforcing this oath. It states that both native-born and naturalized citizens can lose their U.S. nationality by “voluntarily…obtaining naturalization in a foreign state upon his own application,” serving in the military of a country “engaged in hostilities against the United States,” and other voluntary acts. Id. at §§ 1481(a)(1), (3). This does not, however, address most situations in which a naturalized citizen continues to avail themselves of citizenship in another country.

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USGC [Public domain], via Wikimedia CommonsThe current election season has seen a great deal of rhetoric regarding immigration, citizenship, and what it means to be an American. Most of the recent discussion has centered on questions like how many immigrants to admit to the country, and how to deal with undocumented entry. As the arguments grow heated, it is worth taking a step back and looking at how this country’s laws define terms like “citizen,” and how “we the people” fit together as a nation.

Federal law does not have one, distinct definition of a “citizen” of the United States. Rather, it is a collection of rights and obligations obtained by birth or by naturalization. U.S. Const. Amdt. XIV, § 1. “Birthright citizenship” refers to the principle that anyone born within the United States is automatically a citizen. A U.S. citizen is generally considered a citizen of both the United States as a whole and the state in which they reside. The rights of citizenship include travel to and from the U.S., consular services while abroad, and voting in local, state, and national elections. Obligations include payment of taxes and service on juries.

For the purposes of U.S. immigration law, a “state” includes the fifty U.S. states (i.e. Alabama through Wyoming), the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(36). Anyone born within these geographic areas, as well as other areas during a time when they were territorial holdings of the U.S., is deemed to have birthright citizenship. 8 U.S.C. §§ 1401-07. Children born to U.S. citizens outside of the territorial jurisdiction of the U.S. are generally also considered birthright citizens, or may obtain that status. 8 U.S.C. §§ 1431, 1433.
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By Yuvalr (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia CommonsApplying for immigration benefits requires opening up nearly all of your life history to scrutiny by the U.S. government. Failure to disclose requested information can have serious consequences. A federal judge recently sentenced a woman to eighteen months in prison after a jury convicted her of a single count of immigration fraud. Federal prosecutors claimed that the woman failed to disclose a prior conviction in Israel when she applied for naturalization in 2004. United States v. Odeh, No. 2:13-cr-20772, indictment (E.D. Mich., Oct. 22, 2013). Her story made headlines because of connections to terrorism, but the judge noted that immigration fraud was the key issue. After her conviction, the judge entered an order revoking her United States citizenship, meaning she could be deported when she finishes her term of incarceration.

The defendant was reportedly involved with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) in the 1960’s. This organization, according to the government’s indictment, was one of the first Palestinian groups to use terrorism, including hijackings and bombings. The PFLP was involved in two bombings in Jerusalem in February 1969. One bombing killed two people and injured many more at a supermarket, while the other damaged the British Consulate.

The defendant was arrested and charged with five counts in connection with the bombing. In January 1970, a military court convicted her of membership in an illegal organization, participating in the supermarket bombing, and planting bombs at the British Consulate. She served more than ten years in an Israeli prison before being released in a prisoner exchange with the PFLP in 1979.
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German,_British,_American_warships_in_Apia_harbour,_Samoa_1899.jpgAn ongoing court battle illustrates the complex definition of “citizenship” in the United States. The general understanding of U.S. citizenship is that anyone born on U.S. soil is a citizen by birth, and that others can petition the government to become naturalized U.S. citizens. The question is more complicated, however, for people born in certain areas that are, technically, “U.S. soil.” People born in U.S. territories are not necessarily guaranteed citizenship by birth.

American Samoa is an “insular area” of the United States, meaning that it is not part of a state or federal district. The U.S. acquired it through a treaty with Germany in 1899. The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) defines it as an “outlying possession of the United States.” 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(29). People born in American Samoa are classified as “nationals” of the United States, not citizens. 8 U.S.C. § 1408(1). The same is not the case for people born in certain other U.S. territories, such as Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Five people born in American Samoa filed suit for declaratory and injunctive relief, arguing in part that the INA’s denial of citizenship rights to the people of American Samoa violates the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The district court dismissed the plaintiffs’ complaint, finding that they had failed to state a claim on which it could grant relief. Tuatua v. United States, 951 F.Supp. 88 (D.D.C. 2013). The case is currently on appeal to the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals.
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Samoa_Cram_Map_1896.jpgThe Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution defines a “citizen” as anyone “born or naturalized in the United States.” The U.S. did not have a single, uniform system for naturalization until the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1952, which forms the backbone of today’s federal immigration laws. The “born in the United States” part of the Citizenship Clause, however, is more complicated than it might appear with regard to certain U.S. territories.

While the U.S. never had a colonial empire like Spain or the United Kingdom, it continues to hold several territories acquired in the 19th and 20th centuries. About four million people live in five “unincorporated territories” of the United States. The U.S. took control of Puerto Rico and Guam from Spain after the Spanish-American War in 1898, acquired American Samoa through an 1899 treaty with Germany, purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917, and took over the Northern Mariana Islands from Japan after World War II in 1945. Each territory elects a non-voting delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives but has no representation in the Senate and no electoral votes in presidential elections.

These territories are classified as “unincorporated organized territories” (UOTs), except for American Samoa, which is an “unincorporated unorganized territory” (UUT). They are also known as “insular areas,” which are not part of a U.S. state or federal district. The term “unincorporated” means that the U.S. Supreme Court has held that the Constitution does not fully apply in those territories. The term “organized” means that Congress has enacted a body of laws to govern the territory—albeit with no electoral input from the territory’s residents. See, e.g. 48 U.S.C. Sec. 731 et seq. (Puerto Rico). American Samoa has no organic act. See 48 U.S.C. Sec. 1661 et seq.
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Usnaturalization.jpgThe New York Times reported the story of a man who came to the United States from Pakistan as a child, faced possible deportation several times, and finally became a U.S. citizen after years of waiting. Mohammad Sarfaraz Hussain came to the U.S. with his mother, and remained here after she died. He became fully “Americanized,” according to the Times, but the nation’s response to the events of September 11, 2001 put him and others in a difficult position. He was required to register with the National Security Entry-Exit Registration System (NSEERS), a now-defunct program created as part of the “War on Terror.” He avoided deportation and obtained asylum. By enduring some of the worst the immigration system has to offer and becoming a citizen, Hussain offers quite the success story.

According to the Times story, Hussain’s uncle, a physician in Queens, New York, petitioned for an immigrant visa for his sister, Hussain’s mother. As her minor son, Hussain would share her immigrant status. While the petition was pending, she was diagnosed with cancer and traveled to the U.S. on a tourist visa for treatment, bringing eight year-old Hussain with her. Hussain’s mother died in New York, and he overstayed his visa to remain with his uncle. His father died of a heart attack in Pakistan when he was fifteen. Another relative petitioned for an immigrant visa for Hussain, but the September 11 attacks occurred while it was pending.

The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), the predecessor to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), created NSEERS in 2002. The program required certain nationals or citizens of various countries in the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia to register with INS. This included male nationals of Pakistan who were over the age of fifteen at the time. 67 Fed. Reg. 77136 (Dec. 16, 2002). NSEERS was heavily criticized as a form of racial profiling that was both offensive and ineffective. The Department of Homeland Security began scaling the program back as early as 2003, and effectively ended it in 2011. Hussain registered with NSEERS in early 2003, and managed to avoid deportation when massive public support led ICE, which had by then replaced INS, to exercise “prosecutorial discretion” and dismiss the case.
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Conscientious_Objector_memorial,_Tavistock_Sq_Gardens.jpgU.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) denied a woman’s applicant for naturalization based on her stated reasons why she would not be willing to “bear arms on behalf of the United States.” Federal immigration law allows a naturalization applicant to decline to take an oath to bear arms if he or she can demonstrate a religious objection. The woman stated in her application that she is an atheist with significant personal convictions against war and violence, and USCIS denied her application. It reversed its decision after secular advocacy groups, such as the American Humanist Association (AHA) intervened on her behalf. The woman’s case is the second in the past year involving the denial of a naturalization application based on religion.

The applicant, who is originally from Colombia, became a permanent resident of the United States in 2008. She applied for naturalization in October 2013. In her Form N-400, she identified herself as an atheist and provided a statement explaining her unwillingness to take the full oath of allegiance. She described her own history of advocacy for non-violence, and drew on Martin Luther King, Gandhi, Albert Einstein, and Jiddu Krishnamurti to provide a secular explanation for her principles. She also noted that it was unlikely that she would ever be called to serve in the military, but that she wanted to provide an honest answer. On January 29, 2014, USCIS denied her application, reportedly solely because of her opposition to bearing arms.

Federal immigration law requires applicants for naturalization to state their willingness to take an oath of allegiance to the United States, including an oath “to bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by law.” 8 U.S.C. § 1448(a)(5)(A). The statute allows a person to omit the “bear arms” provision if they show, by clear and convincing evidence, that they are opposed to military service “by reason of religious training and belief.” The statute also specifically states that this term refers to “belief in relation to a Supreme Being” but not “political, sociological, or philosophical views or a merely personal moral code.”
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1046480_19872499.jpgU.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) released the first volume of a planned twelve-volume comprehensive Policy Manual (the “Manual”) earlier this year. The first volume, actually designated as Volume 12, covers policies related to citizenship and naturalization. It took effect January 22, 2013, and takes the place of a “field manual” and a set of policy memoranda with rather inefficient organization. The Manual is the result of several years of review of the decade-old immigration agency’s policies and procedures. It will hopefully bring greater organization and efficiency to USCIS, although from the standpoint of immigration attorneys and advocates, that lack of organization sometimes works to the benefit of clients.

Previous USCIS Resources

USCIS officially came into being on March 1, 2003, thanks to the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) split into three separate agencies within the newly-created Department of Homeland Security, with USCIS charged with “national immigration services.” This includes processing of most petitions and applications for immigration benefits. Prior to the Manual, the two primary sources of USCIS policies and procedures were the Adjudicator’s Field Manual (AFM) and the set of immigration policy memoranda maintained by USCIS on its website.
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600px-Facebook_on_Nasdaq.jpegA bill pending in the U.S. Senate targets citizens who renounce their citizenship, a process known as expatriation, as a means of avoiding tax liability. An increasing number of citizens are expatriating every year, although it is not clear how many, if any, do so to avoid taxes. U.S. immigration law deems anyone who expatriates for such tax-related reasons inadmissible to reenter the country, but the burden of proof of intent is generally on the government. The new bill, if passed, would effectively reduce the government’s burden for certain expatriates. Lawmakers were motivated to write the bill from news of Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin’s expatriation, announced shortly before he stood to make a huge profit on Facebook’s initial public offering (IPO).

Saverin was born in Brazil and moved to the United States with his family, when he was still a minor, in 1992. He became a naturalized citizen in 1998. As a Harvard undergraduate student, he co-founded the now-global social networking website Facebook. The company’s formation was presented in a dramatized form in the 2010 film The Social Network. Facebook’s IPO in May 2012 brought in billions of dollars and set several records, making the founders and early investors quite wealthy.
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Arte greca, pietra tombale di donna con la sua assistente, 100 ac. circaA study conducted at Michigan State University has found possible flaws in the citizenship test administered to immigrants applying for naturalization. While the study’s sample size is very small, the main author, Paula Winke, has argued that the standards used to determine whether or not to grant citizenship to a particular applicant may in fact be random.

The citizenship test used by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) was introduced in 2006 as a pilot program and has been mandatory nationwide since October 2009. It was designed to test an applicant’s knowledge of core American values more than just facts about American government and history. The test consists of four parts. Three parts test the applicant’s English language proficiency in reading, writing, and speaking. The fourth part of the test, commonly known as the “civics test,” consists of ten questions chosen from a set of 100 questions in three broad categories: American Government, Integrated Civics, and American History.

“American Government” questions cover the system and structure of the federal government, the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, and the “principles of American democracy.” “Integrated Civics” addresses questions of American geography, holidays, and symbols. “American History” covers all periods from the Colonial era to modern day.

The civics test is conducted verbally, and applicants must answer six of the ten questions correctly to pass. If an applicant does not pass any part of the citizenship exam, they can re-take that part within ninety days. According to USCIS, ninety-three percent of applicants who have taken the exam since October 2009 passed on the first try.

The MSU study administered two versions of the test to 414 participants, some of whom were citizens and some of whom were non-citizens. Of the total group, 136 participants failed both tests, and 181 passed both. The remaining 97 individuals, who passed one test and failed the other, caused concern for Winke.

Based on the participants’ results, Winke concluded that seventy-seven of the questions were equally difficult for both the citizens and non-citizens. Ten questions were easier for the citizen participants, and thirteen were easier for the non-citizens. She described those thirteen as “counterintuitive” and said they did not appear to address the core issues the test is intended to cover. She recommends phasing those questions out. An example of one of the thirteen questions, according to the Detroit Free Press, is “Who is the governor of your state now?”
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